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Distilled wateronce carbon dioxide is removed, has a neutral pH of 7. Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and those with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline. A common example is nitric acid produced by electric discharge in the atmosphere such as lightning.
History The corrosive effect of polluted, acidic city air on limestone and marble was noted in the 17th century by John Evelynwho remarked upon the poor condition of the Arundel marbles.
At first the main focus in research lay on local affects of acid rain. Public awareness of acid rain in the U.
S increased in the s after The New York Times published reports from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire of the myriad deleterious environmental effects shown to result from it.
These areas all burn sulphur-containing coal to generate heat and electricity. The use of tall smokestacks to reduce local pollution has contributed to the spread of acid rain by releasing gases into regional atmospheric circulation.
An example of this effect is the low pH of rain which falls in Scandinavia. Ina group of scientists including Gene Likens discovered the rain that was deposited at White Mountains of New Hampshire was acidic.
The pH of the sample was measured to be 4. Acid rain that mixed with stream water at Hubbard Brook was neutralized by the alumina from soils. Experimental research was done to examine the effects of increased acidity in stream on ecological species.
There was a decrease in species diversity, an increase in community dominants, and a decrease in the food web complexity. Congress passed an Acid Deposition Act. NAPAP looked at the entire problem from a scientific perspective. It enlarged a network of monitoring sites to determine how acidic the precipitation actually was, and to determine long-term trends, and established a network for dry deposition.
It looked at the effects of acid rain and funded research on the effects of acid precipitation on freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, historical buildings, monuments, and building materials. It also funded extensive studies on atmospheric processes and potential control programs.
From the start, policy advocates from all sides attempted to influence NAPAP activities to support their particular policy advocacy efforts, or to disparage those of their opponents.
Inthe panel of scientists came up with a draft report, which concluded that acid rain is a real problem and solutions should be sought. In Maythe House of Representatives voted against legislations that aimed to control sulphur emissions.
There was a debate about whether Nierenberg delayed to release the report. Subsequent Reports to Congress have documented chemical changes in soil and freshwater ecosystems, nitrogen saturation, decreases in amounts of nutrients in soil, episodic acidification, regional haze, and damage to historical monuments.
Meanwhile, inthe U. Congress passed a series of amendments to the Clean Air Act.Oxalic acid | HOOCCOOH or (COOH)2 or C2H2O4 | CID - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Muscle cramps are something all athletes deal with, but few athletes understand. Here is an explanation of 2 theories behind cramps, and prevention and treatment options.
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“A discussion about what causes cancer at the cellular level is a totally different subject than talking about what causes cancer at the systemic level.”.
Causes of Acid Rain. Both natural and man-made sources are known to play a role in the formation of acid rain. But, it is mainly caused by combustion of fossil fuels which results in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and nitrogen oxides (NO x).
1. Natural Sources. The major natural causal agent for acid rain is volcanic emissions. Precipitation (rain, vapours) mixed with acidic chemicals of the atmosphere lower the pH of rainwater and thus cause acid rain.
Acid rain is hazardous for the life on the earth.