Compare and contrast both discipline and management

It also provides the student with safe food-handling procedures necessary to manage a sanitary and safe food service operation in compliance with the national Food Code and National Restaurant Association guidelines.

Compare and contrast both discipline and management

Across the United States, black and Latino students are far more likely than their white classmates to be removed from school as punishment. But while much has been said about the potential negative effects of exclusionary school punishment, little is known about what policymakers can do to address it.

Those findings raise a parallel question: Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, we analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at which students receive detentions, are suspended, or are expelled.

The data follow individual students over several years, enabling us to compare the disciplinary outcomes of students in years when they had a same-race teacher and in years when they did not.

We find consistent evidence that North Carolina students are less likely to be removed from school as punishment when they and their teachers are the same race. This effect is driven almost entirely by black students, especially black boys, who are markedly less likely to be subjected to exclusionary discipline when taught by black teachers.

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There is little evidence of any benefit for white students of being matched with white teachers. Although these results are based on a single state, they should encourage efforts to promote greater diversity in the teaching workforce, which remains overwhelmingly white. In addition to offering more diverse role models at the front of the class, our findings suggest that employing more teachers of color could help minimize the chances that students of color, who trail their white peers in academic achievement, are also subjected to discipline that removes them from school.

Indeed, a analysis of school discipline data by the U. Commission on Civil Rights found these students are overrepresented among students who experience exclusionary discipline across the country.

It could be preventative: Or, regardless of student behavior, teachers might be more inclined to be lenient to students of their same race.

Compare and contrast both discipline and management

In fact, a handful of studies have shown that black and Latino students are less likely to receive exclusionary discipline in schools with higher concentrations of black and Latino teachers.

But these previous studies looked at aggregate relationships at the school level; therefore, we cannot rule out the possibility that schools with more teachers of color have different disciplinary practices for reasons unrelated to teacher demographics.

Separating out the effect of race matching from differences between schools requires individual-level data on students and teachers, including their race and exposure to school discipline measures over multiple years.

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Only with that information is it possible to examine whether discipline rates vary for individual students based on whether they are placed with a teacher of the same race. North Carolina reflects these national trends: SinceNorth Carolina has collected detailed disciplinary records for all public school students, including the type of offense and disciplinary consequences.

In addition, the state collects demographic data from both students and teachers, and provides identifiers that allow researchers to link students to their classroom teachers.

We focus on students in 1st through 5th grades. We also limited our sample to white students and black students, which are the two largest racial groups in North Carolina and account for 78 percent of the total observations in the data. Students of other racial and ethnic groups had insufficient exposure to same-race teachers for the purposes of our study.

For example, while Latino students account for 16 percent of observations in the data, the state has too few Latino teachers to estimate precise race-match effects for this group.

The resulting sample includes roughly one million students and 50, teachers, from the years through Inthe most recent year of our data, one-third of students were black and two-thirds were white. Ten percent of these students were taught by a black teacher and 88 percent were taught by a white teacher.

Our primary outcome of interest is whether a student received an exclusionary disciplinary consequence—that is, one that removed him or her from the classroom as punishment, including detention, in-school suspension, out-of-school suspension, or expulsion.

Overall, 7 percent of students in our data received an exclusionary disciplinary consequence. Isolating Race-Match Effects To isolate the effects of having a teacher of the same race, we examine whether individual students are more or less likely to face exclusionary disciplinary consequences in years when they are matched to a same-race teacher compared to years when they are assigned to a teacher of a different race.

Comparing students to themselves over time effectively controls for all student characteristics that do not change over time and could lead to differences in disciplinary outcomes.

When making these comparisons, we also take into account student, teacher, and school characteristics that do change over time. Of course, race is not the only aspect of the match between students and teachers that could influence disciplinary outcomes; gender could also matter.

For example, other researchers have found that race-based disparities in discipline outcomes are especially pronounced for black boys.

In addition to looking overall at all students in our sample, we therefore also look separately at race-gender groups: We estimate the effect for each of these student groups of being assigned to demographically matched teachers. The Benefits of a Match We find clear evidence that elementary school students are less likely to be subjected to exclusionary discipline when their race matches that of their teacher.

Overall, students matched to a same-race teacher are roughly 1 percentage point less likely to be placed in detention, suspended, or expelled than students assigned to a different-race teacher. To put the size of this effect in context, the overall share of students who received any exclusionary discipline consequences during the study period was 7 percent.

Therefore, the effect of teacher-student race match represents a 12 percent decrease in the number of students experiencing exclusionary discipline. The overall effect of race matching on discipline outcomes is largest for black male students Figure 2.Free discipline papers, essays, and research papers.

Discipline in the 80's Classroom - Growing up as child of the 80's and early 90's, if I went to school and received a paddling or spanking for doing something wrong, I was quite aware of, or at least had the knowledge of the bad behavior that was disregarded and the consequences of my inappropriate action.

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Strategic Management - Kindle edition by Richard Lynch. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.


Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Strategic Management. Key Components of the Cost Management Plan.

The cost management plan guides these four processes.

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Created during the project planning phase, the cost management plan is a document that defines how you manage, control, and communicate a project’s costs . Time management Developing time management skills is a journey that may begin with this Guide, but needs practice and other guidance along the way.

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