Though they were built to last, and used more stone in their construction than most Japanese buildings, castles were still constructed primarily of wood, and many were destroyed over the years.
The Domesday Book Castles have a romantic connotation of princesses and princes, but real medieval castles more closely resemble fortresses than fairy tale illustrations.
That being said, castles from the middle ages exhibit strength and majesty still evident on the landscape today.
Castles were the homes of wealthy nobles and their families while a majority of the population lived in more modest accommodations. The Middle Ages had a complex system of monarchies and feudal lords consistently warring over territory and resources.
Because of this, the purpose of a castle was primarily for protection. Emphasis was given to impenetrability and indestructibility over luxury and comfort. Materials The materials used in building castles in the Middle Ages are primarily wood and stone — resources readily found in much of Europe.
Wood was less expensive and easier to transport; however, it had the obvious disadvantage of being extremely flammable. With the Norman invasion of and the destruction of numerable castles by fire, stone became a more common building material.
Stone, of course, is stronger than wood and not at all flammable, but it does lack the flexibility offered by wood. Rows of stones spaced with mortar have created incredibly durable castles, though initially these structures were tremendously inelegant.
The introduction of the Gothic style in England around resulted in drastic changes to stone architecture in both churches and castles.
Previously stones were cut rather coarsely, but the Gothic style required carefully cut and shaped stones to realize the shapes and heights desired. Another significant advantage of using stone is the ability to re-use the material.
Should a castle by attacked and damaged, a large portion of the raw materials are still available to use in the rebuilding. Construction It is certainly impressive to think that the structures of the Middle Ages were erected with significantly less technological advancement than exists today.
Throughout the medieval time, new developments in technology allowed for the evolution of construction and design techniques. Arches have been in use since the Roman Empire, if not before, but the Gothic development of the pointed arch as opposed to the round, semi-circular arch increased the strength of the structure.
The forces are not simply channeled downward, but to a certain extent outwards as well. Very deep and strong foundations as well as the inclusion of flying buttresses on the exterior therefore support the weight of the building by counteracting the downward and outward thrust of force cause by the arches.
It can be seen through the examples below that an important aspect of the castles is not related to the building but rather to the site itself. Castles are strategically placed to have the best possible defensive position in case of an attack. The best locations were viewed as those at tops of hills, on islands, on peninsulas, and on top of rocky terrain.
Architecture In the early part of the Middle Ages, castles were bulky and formidable structures that, though presumably safe, did not seem ideal for family homes.
The walls were very thick and construction technology and safety only allowed for thin slits for windows resulting in very dark interior spaces.
As the centuries progressed, slow changes were made to medieval architecture transforming it into something much more elegant and majestic. The arch technology discussed above allowed architects and builders to expand the width and height of vaults creating an airier and less claustrophobic space.
Castles and Lakes Tour takes you on a countryside excursion to Odescalchi Castle in Bracciano, Medieval hamlet of Ceri, and Etruscan Necropolis in Cerveteri. Edward was introduced to the concept of the bastide during his expeditions in Gascony and the bastides he created were obviously valued greatly. For example at Caernarvon the King spent at least £ out of a total expenditure of £ 5s. 6½d1 on the construction of . How much did Britain change during the Industrial Revolution? By Tayo Alli During the time period of and Britain developed both socially and economically on a great scale. By Tayo Alli During the time period of and Britain developed both socially and economically on a great scale.
Common features of castles of the Middle Ages include: Towers served as an important defensive tactic by allow sentinels a higher vantage point from which to view an approaching enemy thereby giving the residents more time to prepare for the impending attack.
Despite their importance use in the defense of medieval castles, the number and style of towers are useful in identifying structures. Moats, as seen in many illustrations of fairy tale castles, did exist in actuality and with strong defensive purposes.
The gates could be closed and the bridge lifted hindering the approach of enemy soldiers. This slowed the progress of the attack and gave the defenders the opportunity to attack solders from above.
Great Halls are important features in medieval castle. Despite the primary purpose of defense, castles were places of residence. The noble families often hosted events such as feasts and balls within the Great Halls. Dungeons, interestingly, were most commonly located within the tallest towers of the castle and not in underground cave-like facilities.
Escape from these cells was incredibly difficult, adding another defensive aspect to the design of castles. Chapels are essential in many castles because of limited transportation means. The Middle Ages were an extremely devout time, and the ability to worship from home was convenient and demonstrated to the church their devotion to religion.Amanda: I can honestly tell you I was not always "sooo" beautiful.
I was a plumpish child but I was born into a GREAT looking family. So since I was very young, my mother, my sisters and I where always doing the local shows in Pretoria-North [South Africa], where I grew up. A bailey, also called a ward, was a fortified enclosure. It was a common feature of castles, and most had at least one.
The keep on top of the motte was the domicile of the lord in charge of the castle and a bastion of last defence, while the bailey was the home of the rest of .
three decades ago, they make 40 percent to-day and the girls compose 60 percent, while annually earning , more diplomas than boys. A change in the male mindset. A Proposal To Change The Death Penalty. By Bruce A. Clark [email protected] I oppose the death penalty. I am by no means an expert on the laws or the detailed history of the death penalty, but this is not an issue where such expertise is necessary.
Of course, there was no party for us, and I purposely stayed away from Rafael for several weeks while Allie and I got our feet back under us. There were many conversations about what had occurred, with both of us feeling stupid and guilty.
For its modest size, the Baltic Republic of Latvia offers a surprisingly wide array of castle architecture, spanning from early 13 th century up to the beginning of the 20th..
Shown here is an alphabetically arraigned cross-section, by no means extensive, in photographs made by the author.