Northwestern University This paper examines the five-factor model, a tool used for dimensionally studying personality. Aspects of the model given attention include the specific variables in the model, other related models, and clinical applications of the model. The quality of the model is then evaluated based on five criteria: Ultimately, it is evident that the model fits most of the criteria for greatness, but falls somewhat short of being a great theory in personality because it is not truly a theory.
Historical origins[ edit ] Theodor W. AdornoElse Frenkel-BrunswikDaniel Levinsonand Nevitt Sanford theorized in their book, The Authoritarian Personalityabout a personality type that involved the "potentially fascistic individual".
Original theory[ edit ] Adorno et al. The resulting intrapsychic conflicts cause personal insecurities, resulting in that person's superego to adhere to externally imposed conventional norms conventionalismand to the authorities who impose these norms authoritarian submission. The ego-defense mechanism of projection occurs as indicated when that person avoids self-reference of Personality type theory essay anxiety-producing id impulse, by displaying them onto "inferior" minority groups in the given culture projectivitywith associated beliefs that are highly evaluative power and toughnessand rigid stereotypy.
Additionally, there is a cynical view of humanity and a need for power and toughness resulting from the anxieties produced by perceived lapses in society's conventional norms destructiveness and cynicism.
Other characteristics of this personality type are a general tendency to focus upon those who violate conventional values and act harshly towards them authoritarian aggressiona general opposition to subjective or imaginative tendencies anti-intraceptiona tendency to believe in mystic determination superstitionand finally, an exaggerated concern with promiscuity.
In regards to child development, the formation of the authoritarian type occurs within the first few years of the person's life, strongly shaped by the parents and family structure. Parents who have a need for domination, and who dominate and threaten the child harshly, and demand obedience to conventional behaviors with threats, foster the characteristics of this personality.
In addition, the parents have a preoccupation with social status, and communicate this to the child in terms of rigid and externalized rules. The child then suffers from suppressed feelings of resentment and aggression towards the parents, who are instead, idealized with reverence.
Alfred Adler provided another perspective, linking the "will to power over others" as a central neurotic trait, usually emerging as aggressive over- compensation for felt and dreaded feelings of inferiority and insignificance.
According to this view, the authoritarian's need to maintain control and prove superiority over others is rooted in a worldview populated by enemies and empty of equality, empathy, and mutual benefit. Kirscht and Dillehay  outlined several problems with the Berkeley studies, including response bias.
Response bias results from the F scale being uniformly worded in a confirming direction. Hence, if one tends to respond in agreement with items, regardless of their content, one is rated as an authoritarian by such a test.
Actual assessment of 16 Nazi criminals at Nuremberg trials reported in Zillmer, et al. One of the first applications of the authoritarian scales in academia was by Stern and colleagues, in the early s, at the University of Chicago as reported in Wiggins, Validity[ edit ] Soon after the publication of The Authoritarian Personalitythe theory became the subject of many criticisms.
Theoretical problems involved the psychoanalytic interpretation of personality, and methodological problems focused on the inadequacies of the F-scale.
Another criticism is that the theory of the Berkeley group insinuates that authoritarianism exists only on the right of the political spectrum. As a result, some have claimed that the theory is corrupted by political bias.
Kreml found that although there were stylistic similarities between authoritarians and anti-authoritarians dogmatism, rigidity, etc. In short, in the synthetic approach, the assumption is that those with authoritarian personality characteristics are assessed with researcher's intuitive model of what characteristics fit the criterion role requirements of the predicted situation support of Fascism.
Hence, it is not a completely empirical approach to prediction, but rather based on "arm chair" situational analysis of the criteria, and intuited psychological characteristics to be assessed that fit the situation. More recently, Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, and Sulloway  have presented how the traditional research in authoritarianism or conservatism has confounded the psychological variables e.
Hence the scales measuring individual differences on authoritarianism often include the criteria attitudinal statements of political ideologies. Although the authoritarian is a personality construct, Adorno et al.
Hence, ideological beliefs created within the culture and other social forces shape the prejudices of the given authoritarian individual. However, as noted by Taylor this hypothesized interaction of society and the individual is lost to most of the subsequent research that implemented the F scale in differential psychological studies.
Given the science of personality assessment, the variety of methods Adorno, et al. An example of the social environment impact is presented by Gibb  in his critique of personality traits and leadership, where a study by Katz suggested that the social situation can override personality differences.
In the study, groups of black and white students were formed.A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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Sigmund Freud is considered to be the father of psychiatry. Among his many accomplishments is, arguably, the most far-reaching personality schema in psychology: the Freudian theory of tranceformingnlp.com has been the focus of many additions, modifications, and various interpretations given to its core points.
Albrecht Dürer: The Genius with a Great Soul. Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character. This paper examines the five-factor model, a tool used for dimensionally studying personality.
Aspects of the model given attention include the specific variables in the model, other related models, and clinical applications of the model.