This is because of the variable nature of the impact on nerve tissue and of the mechanical impact on the spinal joints themselves.
Overview[ edit ] Disc herniation is usually due to age-related degeneration of the outer ring, known as the anulus fibrosus, although traumalifting injuriesor straining have been implicated as well.
Tears are almost always postero-lateral on the back of the sides owing to the presence of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spinal canal. Disc herniations are normally a further development of a previously existing disc protrusiona condition in which the outermost layers of the anulus fibrosus are still Slight retrolisthesis of c5 and c6, but can bulge when the disc is under pressure.
In contrast to a herniation, none of the central portion escapes beyond the outer layers. Most minor herniations heal within several weeks. Anti-inflammatory treatments for pain associated with disc herniation, protrusion, bulge, or disc tear are generally effective.
Severe herniations may not heal of their own accord and may require surgery. The condition may be referred to as a slipped disc, but this term is not accurate as the spinal discs are firmly attached between the vertebrae and cannot "slip" out of place. Signs and symptoms[ edit ] Symptoms of a herniated disc can vary depending on the location of the herniation and the types of soft tissue that become involved.
They can range from little or no pain if the disc is the only tissue injured, to severe and unrelenting neck pain or low back pain that will radiate into the regions served by affected nerve roots that are irritated or impinged by the herniated material.
Often, herniated discs are not diagnosed immediately, as the patients come with undefined pains in the thighs, knees, or feet. Other symptoms may include sensory changes such as numbness, tingling, paresthesiaand motor changes such as muscular weakness, paralysis, and affection of reflexes.
If the herniated disc is in the lumbar region, the patient may also experience sciatica due to irritation of one of the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve. Unlike a pulsating pain or pain that comes and goes, which can be caused by muscle spasm, pain from a herniated disc is usually continuous or at least is continuous in a specific position of the body.
It is possible to have a herniated disc without any pain or noticeable symptoms, depending on its location. If the extruded nucleus pulposus material doesn't press on soft tissues or nerves, it may not cause any symptoms.
This type of pain is usually felt in the lower extremities or groin area. Radiating nerve pain caused by a prolapsed disc can also cause bowel and bladder incontinence. If the prolapse is very large and presses on the nerves within the spinal column or the cauda equinaboth sides of the body may be affected, often with serious consequences.
Compression of the cauda equina can cause permanent nerve damage or paralysis. The nerve damage can result in loss of bowel and bladder control as well as sexual dysfunction. This disorder is called cauda equina syndrome.
Other complications include chronic pain. Cause[ edit ] Most authors favour degeneration of the intervertebral disc as the major cause of spinal disc herniation and cite trauma as a low cause. Specifically, the nucleus becomes fibrous and stiff and less able to bear load. The load is transferred to the anulus, which, if it fails to bear the increased load, can lead to the development of fissures.
If the fissures reach the periphery of the anulus, the nuclear material can pass through as a disc herniation.
When the spine is straight, such as in standing or lying down, internal pressure is equalized on all parts of the discs. While sitting or bending to lift, internal pressure on a disc can move from 17 psi lying down to over psi lifting with a rounded back. Herniation of the contents of the disc into the spinal canal often occurs when the anterior side stomach side of the disc is compressed while sitting or bending forward, and the contents nucleus pulposus get pressed against the tightly stretched and thinned membrane anulus fibrosus on the posterior side back side of the disc.
The combination of membrane thinning from stretching and increased internal pressure to psi results in the rupture of the confining membrane.
The jelly-like contents of the disc then move into the spinal canal, pressing against the spinal nerves, which may produce intense and potentially disabling pain and other symptoms.
Probable candidate genes like type I collagen sp1 sitetype IX collagenvitamin D receptoraggrecanasporinMMP3interleukin-1and interleukin-6 polymorphisms have been implicated in disc degeneration.
A primary focus of surgery is to remove pressure or reduce mechanical compression on a neural element— either the spinal cordor a nerve root. But it is increasingly recognized that back pain, rather than being solely due to compression, may also be due to chemical inflammation.I recently had an x-ray of my cervical spine and the test results reported: There is reversal of normal cervical lordosis with disc space narrowing and equivocal retrolisthesis at C with some lateral spurring more on the right.
What is retrolisthesis at c5-c6? SAVE CANCEL. already exists. Would you like to merge this question into it? MERGE CANCEL. already exists as an alternate of this question. Retrolisthesis, is a. Retrolisthesis. is the term used to define a degenerative and an acute spine condition in which a single vertebra gets displaced and moves backwards onto the vertebra lying immediately below it.
A retrolisthesis is a posterior displacement of one vertebral body with respect to the adjacent vertebra. This is a soft tissue injury . definition, classification, significance, joint stability, symptoms, non-surgical treatment protocol, references.
Homeopathic medicines for sciatica can treat acute as well chronic cases. These can effectively heal and cure, and also help prevent surgical intervention.
C5 to C6 spondylosis describes spinal degeneration that develops in the space between the fifth and sixth vertebrae in the cervical (upper) spine in the neck. The term spondylosis is a general term used to describe normal, age-related spine degeneration and the presence of related conditions and symptoms.