Through the remainder of the Middle Ages the kings of England held extensive territories in Francebased on their history in this Duchy. Under the Angevin EmpireEngland formed part of a collection of lands in the British Isles and France held by the Plantagenet dynasty.
Beginnings Of North European Expansion European overseas expansion after entered a second phase, comparable to developments at home.
As Spain declined, so did the Spanish empire and that of Portugal, which was tied to Spain by a Habsburg king after and plagued with its own developing imperial problems. These new conditions afforded opportunities for northern European states.
The Dutch, between andalmost cleared the Atlantic of Spanish warships and took over most of the Portuguese posts in Brazil, Africa, and Asia. The French and English also became involved on a smaller scale, setting up their global duel for empire in the eighteenth century.
Expanding foreign trade, new products, an increasing supply of bullion, and rising commercial risks created new problems, calling for energetic initiatives.
During the sixteenth century the Spanish and Portuguese had depended upon quick profits, and because of weak home industries and poor management, wealth flowed through their hands to northern Europe, where it was invested in productive enterprises. Later, this wealth generated a new imperial age.
European markets after the sixteenth century were swamped with a bewildering array of hitherto rare or unknown goods. In an era without refrigeration imported spices, such as pepper, cloves, and cinnamon, made spoiled foods palatable.
Sugar became a common substitute for honey, and cocoa, the Aztec sacred beverage, spread throughout Europe. Coffee and tea, from the New World and Asia, soon produced new social habits throughout Europe.
North American furs, Chinese silks, and cottons from India and Mexico revolutionized clothing fashion. Luxury furnishings, using rare woods, ivory, and Oriental carpets appeared more frequently in homes of the wealthy. The use of American tobacco became almost a mania among all classes and contributed further to the booming European market.
Imported gold and, more significantly, silver probably affected the European economy more than all other foreign goods.
After the Spaniards looted Aztec and Inca treasure rooms, the gold flowing from America and Africa subsided to a trickle, but seven million tons of silver poured into Europe before Spanish prices quadrupled and, because most of the silver went to pay for imports, prices in northern Europe more than tripled.
The influx of bullion and the resulting inflation hurt landlords depending on fixed rents and creditors who were paid in cheap money, but the bullion bonanza ended a centuries-long gold drain to the East, with its attendant money shortage.
It also increased the profits of merchants selling on a rising market, thus greatly stimulating north European capitalism. At the opening of the sixteenth century, Italian merchants and money-lenders, mainly Florentines, Venetians, and Genoese, dominated the rising Atlantic economy.
The German Fugger Banking house at Augsburg also provided substantial financing. As the century passed, Antwerp in the southern Netherlands became the economic hub of Europe. It was the center for the English wool trade as well as the entrepot way station for southbound trade from the Baltic and Portuguese goods from Asia.
It was also a great financial center, dealing in commercial and investment instruments.
Meanwhile, north European capitalism flourished in nearly every category. Portuguese trade was rivaled by that of north European merchants in the Baltic and the North Atlantic. Northern joint stock companies pooled capital for privateering, exploring, and commercial venturing.
The Dutch and English East India companies, founded early in the seventeenth century, were but two of the better known stock companies.
In England, common fields were enclosed for capitalistic sheep runs. Throughout western Europe, domestic manufacturing, in homes or workshops, competed with the guilds. Large industrial enterprises, notably in mining, shipbuilding, and cannon-casting were becoming common.
Their empire, like the Portuguese earlier, was primarily commercial; even their North American settlements specialized in fur trading with the Indians. They acquired territory where necessary to further their commerce but tried to advance their interests by pragmatic policies, in accord with native cultures, rather than by conquest.The term "Latin America" primarily refers to the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in the New tranceformingnlp.com the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the region was home to many indigenous peoples, a number of which had advanced civilizations, most notably from North to South; the Olmec, Maya, Muisca .
At Jamestown Settlement & American Revolution Museum at Yorktown, History is Fun! Take a journey of historic proportions at Jamestown Settlement and the new American Revolution Museum at Yorktown – two living-history museums that explore the story of America’s beginnings, from the founding of America’s first permanent English colony .
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the .
Walk in the steps of Captain John Smith and Pocahontas where a successful English colonization of North America began. Despite early struggles to survive, the settlement evolved into a prosperous colony.
As the colony expanded, the Virginia Indians were pushed out of their homeland.
In. Beginnings to A.D. -Leif Ericson, a Viking seaman, explores the east coast of North America and sights Newfoundland, establishing a short-lived settlement there. Beginnings Of North European Expansion.
European overseas expansion after entered a second phase, comparable to developments at home. As Spain declined, so did the Spanish empire and that.