Acquisition Cost The cost of the asset including the cost to ready the asset for its intended use. Acquisition cost for equipment, for example, means the net invoice price of the equipment, including the cost of any modifications, attachments, accessories, or auxiliary apparatus necessary to make it usable for the purpose for which it is acquired.
Consumer marketing research is a form of applied sociology that concentrates on understanding the preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of consumers in a market-based economyand it aims to understand the effects and comparative success of marketing campaigns. Role[ edit ] The purpose of marketing research MR is to provide management with relevant, accurate, reliable, valid, and up to date market information.
Competitive marketing environment and the ever-increasing costs attributed to poor decision making require that marketing research provide sound information. Sound decisions are not based on gut feeling, intuition, or even pure judgment.
Managers make numerous strategic and tactical decisions in the process of identifying and satisfying customer needs.
They make decisions about potential opportunities, target market selection, market segmentation, planning and implementing marketing programs, marketing performance, and control.
These decisions are complicated by interactions between the controllable marketing variables of product, pricingpromotion, and distribution.
Further complications are added by uncontrollable environmental factors such as general economic conditions, technology, public policies and laws, political environment, competition, and social and cultural changes.
Another factor in this mix is the complexity of consumers. Marketing research helps the marketing manager link the marketing variables with the environment and the consumers. It helps remove some of the uncertainty by providing relevant information about the marketing variables, environment, and consumers.
In the absence of relevant information, consumers' response to marketing programs cannot be predicted reliably or accurately.
Ongoing marketing research programs provide information on controllable and non-controllable factors and consumers; this information enhances the effectiveness of decisions made by marketing managers.
However, the roles are changing and marketing researchers are becoming more involved in decision making, whereas marketing managers are becoming more involved with research. The role of marketing research in managerial decision making is explained further using the framework of the DECIDE model.
History of marketing Evidence for commercial research being gathered informally dates to the Medieval period. Inthe German textile manufacturer, Johann Fuggertravelled from Augsburg to Graben in order to gather information on the international textile industry.
He exchanged detailed letters on trade conditions in relevant areas. Although, this type of information would have been termed "commercial intelligence" at the time, it created a precedent for the systemic collection of marketing information.
During this period, Daniel Defoea London merchant, published information on trade and economic resources of England and Scotland.
Defoe was a prolific publisher and among his many publications are titles devoted to the state of trade including; Trade of Britain Stated, ; Trade of Scotland with France, and The Trade to India Critically and Calmly Considered, - all of which provided merchants and traders with important information on which to base business decisions.
Produce, household goods and tools were produced by local artisans or farmers with exchange taking place in local markets or fairs.Literature Review Bullying and Its Prevention: Implications for the Safe School Ambassadors® Program Prepared by OMNI Research and Training, Inc for Community Matters.
Highlights Scholars argue for the integration of social media as an educational tool in the college classroom. Empirical evidence, however, has lagged in supporting the claim. Data is limited mainly to self-reports and content analyses.
Limitations are discussed, and future areas of research are proposed. Quantitative research: an operational description. Purpose: explain, predict or control phenomena through focused collection and analysis of numberical data.
Approach: deductive; tries to be value-free/has objectives/ is outcome-oriented. Hypotheses: Specific, testable, and stated prior to study. Lit.
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Why is the literature review often limited in a study using grounded theory methods? Theories are expected to emerge directly from the data and not from previous research. When reading a report of a phenomenologic study, the nurse finds direct quotes from the participants threaded throughout the narrative.
A literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, providing a .